Frontier Passages
Ethnopolitics and the Rise of Chinese Communism, 1921-1945
Xiaoyuan Liu


Table of Contents for Frontier Passages

Table of Contents for Frontier Passages


List of Maps

Acronyms and Abbreviations


Note on Transliteration


1.      Prologue: From the World of China to China of the World

Historical Renewal

The World of China

China of the World

China Nationalized


2.      Bolshevization: Limitations of Conversion

Anti-Imperialism in Two Tones

Containing the Chinese Revolution

Go Among the “Minorities”?


3.      Sovietization: A Rebellious Option

“Advanced South” versus “Backward North”

“Red Banner” versus “Black Banner”

Iconoclastic Hunanese and the “Marvelous Georgian”

International or National Minorities


4.      Northernization: The Search for a Peripheral Strategy

“Upper-Stratum Line”

Where To?

“Great Hanism”

“Bod-Pa People’s Republic”


5.      Nationalization: In Lieu of Internationalization

“Breakthrough to the Soviet Union”

Genesis of a Failure

“Trap of Nationalism”

“Chinese Nation”


6.      Borderization: Trans-Ethnic Reach

Neighborly Behavior

A Time for “Incidents”

“Minsorities” Close-Up

Frontier Personality


7.      Epilogue: From the “Chinese Nation” to China of Nations?

A Matter of “Maturity”

“Historic Self-Determination

A “New Era”

“From the Forefathers’ Footsteps”